• Systematically examine the vital few Xs, in relation to the processes, to determine the best approach for developing a solution.
  • Determine the best product to select in order to maximize Return on Investment (ROI).
  • Find cause and effect relationships on order to help compare and verify alternative solutions (tools may include: Design of Experiment {DoE} and Solution Design Matrix {SDM}).
  • Determine activities needed to meet project goals.
  • Create work breakdown structures and a detailed implementation plan for the project.
  • Determine how to re-integrate the different sub-projects



  • Important causes of defects.
  • Special and common causes of variation.
  • DPMO & Sigma Levels

Tools: Return on Investment (ROI)

  • ROI is measure of the income (or profit) divided by investment ROI measures how effectively the company uses its capital to generate profits.
  • For a Six Sigma projects, the project cost is the investment and income is the quantified benefits accrued from the project.  Thus, the ROI for a Six Sigma project is the ratio of project benefits to project costs.
  • The objective of any company is to maximize ROI.
  • Project costs may be divided into broad categories such as infrastructure or raw materials.
  • Project benefits can be segmented into categories such as increased revenue, improved productivity, reduction in cost, cost avoidance, enhanced customer satisfaction.
  • Design of Experiment (DOE) and Solution Design Matrix (SDM) are examples of tools we use when comparing several alternative projects.  These tools help us verify proposed solutions and help to ensure the company achieves the benefits of doing the Six Sigma Project.


Tools: Solution Design Matrix (SDM)

  • The SDM tool used to organize alternate solutions based on available information.
  • SDM provides an illustration of how proposed solutions, in meeting the specified criteria, campare to the existing system.
  • Steps:
    • Determine projects key evaluation criteria


Design of Experiments (DOE)

  • DOE is a statistical tool used to determine cause and effect relationships in order to help identify the best solution.
  • Every process can be considered to be a black-box with some inputs and some outputs.  Using Design of Experiments, processes or settings are changes in a systematic way in order to find the best solution.


Taguchi Robustness Concepts

  • Taguchi theorized that manufacturing processes are impacted by external disturbance, called noise, which impact the quality of goods produced.
  • While some noise cannot be avoided (i.e. bad weather), noise should be minimized whenever possible.


Response Surface Methodology (RSM)

  • RSM is a statistical tool that uses quantitative data from appropriate experiments  in order to study, improve, or optimize a process.
    • RSM can follow experiments, conducted by DOE, in order to provide a means to study the responses in the forms of either: 3-D renderings or contours.


Project Planning & Management Tools

  • Since we already have a good idea about the project in the improve phase, pm tools are used to ensure accurate & appropriate project planning (which includes a detailed implementation plan).